Tuesday, November 22, 2022

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Saudi Arabia

By the fundamental law of 1992, it was decided that the succession to the throne in Saudi Arabia will be on male hereditary line. If the fundamental law of a State is considered to be the Constitution, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Constitution is represented by the Koran. Furthermore, it is no Parliament, but the so-called "Advisory Council", consisting mainly of citizens appointed by King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz himself. An important commercial center, the kingdom has played throughout history an essential role in trading business. Moreover, it is considered a center of Islam, the ancient religion that emerged for the first time right there, in the kingdom. It is a known fact that 75% of government revenues are supported by the money coming from oil exports. In fact, Saudi Arabia is the world's largest oil exporter.

Although Saudi Arabia has greatly developed over the centuries, nowadays, from the political point of view, the country still remained in a mediocre state. Political parties are not allowed, not even mention unions. A long debated subject in the international press, the Middle East rebellion was a very controversial issue due to the fact that human rights are violated by the "Arab tyrants" , who are ignoring them or worse, by applying drastic measures. Although there is an Advisory Council, its role is strictly limited to advising the king, unable to fight for human rights.

But the most important problem does not regard the human rights, but refers to the position of women in Arab society. Saudi women have limited political rights. On the other hand, man's position is quite opposite to that of the woman, being her guardian and having full rights concerning her. More likely, man considers the woman as his property. He decides in her place whether she is going to study at university or not, what kind of education she will receive and so on. In fact, the law is tolerant over the top, as there are no provisions in order to protect women in Saudi society and to promote independence. Polygamy is allowed to men, this fact representing another problem, seen internationally as a "serious violation of women's rights, that leads the family to chaos".

Saudi Arabia has formed a restrictive culture, that was preserved even nowadays. Five times a day, Muslims are called to prayer, but one interesting aspect is that the weekend starts on Thursday, because Friday is considered the holiest day of the week. Despite this, there is a continuing fear of the authorities, in terms of powerful religious implications of the citizens, leading, they say, to a possible overthrow of the kingdom. In this regard, there were people's protests, especially in 2010, given the uneasy context of the Middle East.

Expression of art was also deprived by restrictions. Censorship has limited free expression in literature, film, painting, even music. Instead, throughout history, there have been many artists who became famous just by their censorship. Sports are quite famous, football being one of them. Among traditional sports there should be mentioned the camel races.

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